Designed by Fred C. Davis, Jr.
1982 (with amendments in 1984).
DOWNLOAD MAP (GIF) (144Kb)
All the regular rules of Diplomacy apply, as outlined in the
1971 and 1976 Rulebooks, except as noted below.
There are 47 Supply Centres, and with the addition of Sweden
and Spain there are nine Great Powers. Austria, Germany and Turkey have 4 Home
Supply Centres; Russia has 5. Austria and Germany begin with 4 units on the
board; Russia with 5. All other Powers begin the game with 3 units on the board,
(See map for changes, especially the borders of the Turkish Empire as of 1885).
The Great Powers will begin the game with the following new
units, or units changed in type or locations, in addition to the units and
locations specified in the Regular rules:
AUSTRIA: A(Cluj), F(Split) [there is no Trieste].
ENGLAND: F(Liverpool) [Instead of Army].
FRANCE: No change.
GERMANY: A(Dresden) added.
ITALY: Choice in Rome (Army or Fleet).
RUSSIA: Choice of one unit in either St. Petersburg or
Sevastopol being changed from a Fleet to an Army, The Army in respect of the
Archangel home centre starts the game in Siberia instead.
SPAIN: A(Madrid), F(Cadiz), F(Valencia).
SWEDEN: A(Stockholm), F(Gothenburg), Choice in Oslo (Army or
TURKEY: F Sinope (there is no Ankara). There is no unit in
Macedonia SC at start of the game (see Rule 10).
The chosen type of the initially undetermined units in Italy,
Russia and Sweden do not have to revealed before the first move.
The first move of the game is January 1885, and each
subsequent move will take place during a single month. The Build/Removal seasons
will be in March, June, September and December.
a. For a Single player, the Victory Criterion is 24 Supply
b. Any two players may obtain an "Alliance Victory"
if they jointly own at least 34 Centres at the end of a Fall move, with neither
owning less than 12 Centres.
c. Any three players may obtain an "Alliance
Victory" if they jointly own at least 38 Centres at the end of a Fall move,
with no Power owning less than 8 Centres.
d. The game may also end if all the Powers agree to concede
the game to one Power or a coalition before any one country has obtained 24
Special Characteristics of Certain Provinces:
a. Sicily is a Build Centre for Italy only. It is part of
Italy from the start of the game, and Italy may build units there in a Winter
season whenever she owns the province (was the last Power to occupy it in any
season) and it is vacant.
b. The following Neutral Supply Centres may be used for
building units if owned by the specified Powers: 1. Ireland, if owned by
England; 2. Portugal, if owned by Spain; 3. Persia, if owned by Russia.
All convoys involving the crossing of more than one sea space
will be undertaken by the formation of an Army /Fleet according to the following
rules (note, all A/F examples use the regular board).
Move Sequence. Embarkations are adjudicated prior to
simultaneous movement. Disembarkations occur during simultaneous movement and
are adjudicated as being simultaneous with and independent of whatever happens
to the fleet element of the A/F.
Fast Ferry. A convoy as described in the Diplomacy
rulebook is limited to the crossing of a single sea space via a single fleet. To
avoid confusion with A/F convoys, a regular single space convoy is referred to
as a "Fast Ferry" ("FF"). If a fleet attempts to FF an army,
but is unable to disembark the army, then the army remains on board the fleet
and an A/F is formed (see below).
Embarkation. An army may embark on to a fleet either
before simultaneous movement is adjudicated and thus a legal embarkation move
can never fail. If an army has embarked on a fleet and cannot disembark for
whatever reason, it will remain on board the fleet as an A/F.
A/F Operations. A convoy of more than one sea space can
only be undertaken by the formation of an "Army/Fleet"
("A/F") to carry the army on board. In a given move, an army may board
a fleet in an adjacent sea space (thus creating an A/F), the A/F may them move
to an adjacent sea space, and the army may then also disembark the army
into a coastal space adjacent to the second sea space. For example, A(Lon)
boards F(ENG), A/F(ENG)-MAO, A disembarks Por.
An A/F has the same combat value as a single fleet and may
attack, support and be supported, but it may not FF. An A/F may support
operations in coastal provinces, although it may never enter a coastal province.
Disembarkation. Disembarkation is simultaneous with other
movement, thus an army may disembark from an A/F at the same time that the fleet
is moving elsewhere or supporting another action. For example, A/F(ION)
disembarks A(Tun), F(ION)-EMS. However, if disembarkation fails, then the A/F
remains intact and any fleet movement (but not support) will also fail (because
if it succeeded the army would be left behind to drown).
It follows that if an A/F is disembarking an army then the
fleet element may use its move to support the disembarkation of the army. For
example A/F(BLA) disembarks A(Sev) S by F(BLA) will displace an unsupported
If an A/F attempting to disembark an army attempts to move or
is dislodged, then the disembarkation will be unaffected as it is considered
independently of the fleet.
Exception. In order to avoid circular reasoning, there is
an exception to the general rule that disembarkations are simultaneous with
other movement. The disembarkation of an army from an A/F, which in turn would
have had to move successfully to be in a position to disembark the army, may not
have an direct or indirect effect on the success of the movement of the A/F in
question, and if it does so the disembarkation will fail.
For example, consider the following orders:
ENGLAND: A/F(NTH)-ENG, disembarks A(ENG)-Bre, F(MAO) S
The result will be that the French move to Brest succeeds and
England will have an A/F in ENG. The reasoning here is if the English
disembarkation in Brest succeeded, the French move F(ENG)-Bre would fail and
therefore the English move A/F(NTH)-ENG would fail. Thus the disembarkation has
a direct effect on the success of the movement of the A/F it came from,
therefore the disembarkation fails.
Retreats. If an A/F is forced to retreat to a coastal
space, it reverts to a fleet and the army is disbanded. An dislodged army may
retreat on to an adjacent fleet in a sea space and create an A/F.
Circular reasoning. In the event that any movement cannot
be adjudicated due to circular reasoning, then all units will stand.
Direct Passage/Four Point Meets. There are four
4-point meets where Fleets may move, support or convoy to or through any of the
adjacent spaces, as shown by the arrows). Such links exist between Hebrides Sea,
Edinburgh, North Sea and Clyde; Valencia, Gulf of Lions, Western Med., Alboran
Sea; Ionian Sea, Malta, Southern Med., Tripoli; Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily, Naples,
Ionian Sea. All four provinces which meet in this way should be visualised as
coming together at a point and any movement between two such provinces has no
effect on movement between the other two. Armies may move and support between
Naples and Sicily without convoy, although this does not prevent Fleets from
moving and supporting between the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas.
Retreats and Removals.
a. Retreats are made by Just's Right-Hand Rule if a player
fails to submit a Retreat order (unit retreats to first space to right of
attack, then first space to left of attack, then second space to right of attack
and so on). A player may not write an "Off the Board" or Disbands
retreat order. A unit will only be disbanded if no retreat is possible.
b. Removal of units in a postal game will be made by the GM
when a player fails to submit a removal order. There is no requirement that a GM
must remove fleets before armies, or Away units before Home units, where he
finds that such a removal would result in the gift of a Supply Centre to another
Power. In all such cases, the GM is required to remove the unit which, in his
judgment (which is final and cannot be questioned), the removal of which
would have the least effect on the course of the game.
There is no Turkish unit in Macedonia at the start of the
game. Turkey starts with 3 units on the board. If she still controls Macedonia
after February 1885, she may build a unit for that Supply Centre in any Home S.C. in March. She does not have to occupy Macedonia to do so.
The Suez Canal is in the provincce of Egypt. Fleets moving
between the Southern Mediterranean and the Red Sea must remain one turn in
Egypt. Both parts of Egypt are a single province.
Egypt touches Arabia (arrows). Red Sea does not touch
High Ocean Box Rules: The High Ocean Box connects the
North, Mid and South Atlantic Ocean spaces with the Red Sea and Indian Ocean
spaces. Any number of Fleets may simultaneously occupy the High Ocean Box, a
move to the Box can never fail and a Fleet can never be dislodged from the Box.
A Fleet within the Box may support another Fleet within the Box attempting to
move into an adjacent sea space. Similarly a Fleet in an adjacent sea space may
also support another Fleet within the Box attempting to move into an adjacent
Armies may be convoyed by the A/F method through the High
Ocean Box, but not Azores. An Army may occupy Azores.
There are no two-coasted provinces in this variant. Fleets in
Copenhagen, Jutland and Gothenburg all move in the coastal waters surrounding
Copenhagen (which is actually on an island named Själland).
Non-standard abbreviations on the Map:
Alg; Algeria; Lap Lapland; ALB Alboran Sea; Lev Levant; Ara
Arabia; Mac* Macedonia; Ark* Archangel; Mad* Madrid; ARO Artic Ocean; MAL Malta
Sea; Ast Asturia; Mor* Morrocco; Azo* Azores; Nav Navarre; BoB Bay of Biscay;
Osl* Oslo; Cad* Cadiz; Per* Persia; Cat Catalonia; RdO Rio de Oro; Clu* Cluj;
RIG Riga Sea; Cop* Copenhagen; RED Red Sea; Cou Courland; Sib Siberia; Cro
Croatia; Sic Sicily; Dre* Dresden; Sin* Sinope; Egy* Egypt; SAO South Atlantic;
Got* Gothenburg; SMS Southern Med.; HEB; Hebridean Sea; Spl* Split; HOB High
Ocean Box; Sto* Stockholm; Ice* Iceland; Sud Sudan; IND Indian Ocean; Swa Swabia;
Ire* Ireland; Swi* Switzerland; Jäm Jämtland; Tri Tripolitania; Jut Jutland;
Val* Valencia; Zar* Zara
SA For the sake of completeness,
archivists should note that I have used the province names suggested by Per
Wrestling in Lepanto 4-Ever No.10 (August 1990) As a true pedant, let me
take this opportunity to point out that William II did not open the Kiel Canal
until 20th June 1895, so players who really want to play an 1885 variant had
better make Kiel into a two-coasted province.