Invasions I (ar12)

The Germanic Invasions in the Roman Empire and the constitution of a new European order

by Cristiano Corte Restitutti

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I Introduction

Invasions is a game that recreates the dynamic, yet turbulent centuries after the fall of Rome, when huge areas of the old Empire were brought under germanic barbarian activities and new kingdoms' formation. The growth of german people outside the Empire territory was mostly resulted from superpopulation climaxes in Skandinavia, which obligatedmass migrations to central europe. The germans were the military leaders of the decadent Empire, but they were tribal rivals and so they lacked political force. The power of the german leaders came from the direct approval from the Emperor, and so they depended on the Imperial investiture to solve their differences. Iona bishopric spread out the christianism which would convert the whole i The race for the ex-roman empire's treasures and territories started in the 5th Century. The Hunian Hordes pushed the eastern germanic tribes (the Goths) to the west, thus forcing strong decisions from the Empire. But, when the Empire needed an united military force, the armies were split in different tribes defending different parts of the Imperial frontiers. When the peoples that supplied soldiers were purged out from their homelands by eastern "barbarians" (the Hunians and who was fleeing from them - the Goths, the Vandals, the Avars, the Slavians), their leaders - who had Roman citizenship for their military status - solved the problem by taking those lands for them, and thus founding new Kingdoms which were the roots of medieval Europe. The Empire left the colonies for their own, and invaders came from everyside. In Britain, te old celtic tribes fought hard to restablish a centralized kingdom, but their fight was interfered by german-skandinavian invaders through the sea. The roman imperialism was perpetuated by the byzantines, who kept Byzancium as the capital of the "Eastern Roman Empire". The game begins with 8 major german tribes fighting for the roman supply centres, with 3 major eastern invaders threating the germanic lands, with 2 major celtic people running for the romanic-british supply centers, with 3 major skandinavian tribes trying to give a breath to their lack of lands, and, finally, by the byzantines, who will try to restablish the romanic civilization. During those times, from the 5th Century to the 9th Century, Europe was in a state of flux with imperial and tribal boundaries constantly changing. No single map can adequately portray the european geography during those times, so the mapboard is representative of a whole era rather than a depiction at one point in time.

II The Powers

There are 17 powers in the game. The best set-up for a game would need 17 players, but the game can easily be played by 9 players, by the following pairing set-up . The 17 powers can be resumed to: 8 german tribes, 2 celtic tribes, 3 skandinavian tribes, 3 "foreign" tribes and the byzantines.

The Germanic Tribes are:

ANGLO-SAXONS Set-up: Fleet Anglia & Fleet Saxonia Although the Angles and the Saxons were different people, for game purposes they were made a single power, as their areas of activity were most the same: westerns coasts of Denmark and northwestern german coasts, landing in eastern british coasts. The Saxons were the first germans to achieve an official colony in Britain. England means "the land of the angles". The Anglo-Saxon domination is the root of medieval England.

BURGUNDIONES Set-up: Army Burgundionia & Army Germania Superior There were many germanic tribes ruling the the territories from the Alps to Baviera. The Burgundiones were chosen to represent them, as they were the most successful of them in ex-romanian territories. Their homeland was in northern German through the Elba river, but they came to claim roman lands, as their lead noble family was in line of succession to the Empire. They conquered a land which until today is known by their name: Burgundie.

FRANKS Set-up: Army Belgica & Army Franconia The Franks were the most important military armies of the Empire, as they secured the borders of Galia from all other germanic tribes. They were, indeed, the most successful germanic tribe, as they founded the dinasty which would be the first Roman-Germanic Holy Empire, blessed by the Pope. They built a huge Kingdom from northeastern (actual) France to central Germany.

FRISIANS Set-up: Fleet Friesland & Fleet Germania Superior The nether lands' people were the frisians. They were the masters of the english channel, and they used to have commercial colonies in Britain. Their powers has diminished with the ascencion of the Anglo-Saxons, but they were od major importan ce in the beginnings of the fall of romanic british rulers.

LOMBARDS Set-up: Army Pannonia Inferior & Army Pannonia Superior The Lombards did not participate on the fall of the Empire, but they were the ones who, in the 7th Century, built (and kept for a century) a very important kingdom in northen Italy, and the ruled the Papacy. Their roots are in Bohemia, but in the conquering of the plains of Pannonia (Austria-Hungary) they built their military base for the italian expansion. Italy (and Rome) was pillaged by a series of barbarian raids during those times, but the Lombards were the only to stablish a solid kingdom on italian lands.

OSTROGOTHS Set-up: Army Flumen Dniepr & Army Flumen Dniestr The Ostrogoths are the "goths of the east". They ruled a very large kingdom in southern russian plains, but they were purged out by the visitors the Huns. Then they started their life of raids anf pillages, with the climax in the plundering of Rome. They were known by their ferocity in battle and by their ability on joining mercenaries to their bands, which explains a lot their will for treasures.

VANDALS & AVARS Set-up: Army Bohemia & Army Moravia Although they were separate tribes, the Vandals and the Avars had lots in common. They used to work as mercenaries for other germanic tribes, and were mostly unable to build a solid kingdom. The great feature of them both was the plundering of Hispania, and their further arriving in Africa. Once in Africa, they grew a strong navy and conquered the mediterranean islands and plundered Rome. They instigated the byzantine counter-attack on the mediterranean, when the Eastern Roman Empire claimed back once greek lands as all those possessed by the Vandals.

VISIGOTHS Set-up: Army Dacia Imferior & Army Dacia Superior The visigoths are the "goths of the west". They were neighbour to both Eastern and Western Empire, as they occupied lands once part of the Roman Empire, in actual Rumania. They plundered Byzancium, but, when the byzantines came back from their eastern wars, they had to flee to the west, bringing with them lots of treasures. They became the most mythic german people by stablishing their kingdom in southern Galia and northern Hispania and founding the dinasty of the "long haired Kings", which disputed the sovereignity of western Eureope with the Franks.

The Celtic Tribes are:

BRITONS Set-up: Army Gwynedd & Fleet Corwall This power tries to extract the celtic roots of Ireland, Wales and Armorica (french Britania), as these lands hace ever had a mystic link through the belief of their people. The Britons fought the romans, the frisians, the jutes, the angles and the saxons in Britain. They landed in Armorica, thus consolidating the celtic roots of northwestern France.

SCOTS & PICTS Set-up: Army Northern Highlands & Fleet Hibernia This power represents the irish and scottish invaders in ex-roman Britain, and the growth of a new celtic concept, transfigurated to the christian catholicism. From the Iona bishopric spread out the christianism which would convert the whole island. The safety of scottich and irish people was only disturbed with the raise on the norwegians as the great sailers; indeed, the normans have conquered Ireland and Scotland before their arrival to Greenland and America.

The Skandinavian Tribes are:

JUTES & DANES Set-up: Fleet Denmark & Fleet Jutland The Jutes werre partners ant rivals to the Anglo-Saxons. They were not able to found kingdoms in Britain, although they have found colonies. The great power of these people have been numbed by the success of their neighbours, but the danish have survived as an independent people and Denmark was never been part of any germanic empire.

NORMANS Set-up: Fleet Norway & Fleet Skiringssal The norwegian people did not participate on the early invasions in Britain, but, even as a second raid, they were the most important viking people. They built a vast empire, winning the british commerce from the jutes, and the angles, founding many ports all around Britain and Ireland, conquering northern France (Normandie) and reaching the mediterranean (sicily became a norman kingdom).

SWEDES Set-up: Fleet Birka & Fleet Gotland Very little is known about Sweden in early medieval age (450 AD). It's known that that was the land of many tribes, and the swedes became the most important of them as the centuries passed by. It's known that some of those tribes, the Variags, the Röss and the sailers from Gotlans in general, used to have the Slavian cities in actual Russia as their vassals. Indeed, it was by navigating through the russian rivers that some swede princes became the lords of the slavians, and these nobles were known as beeing the Röss, and here is the root of the term Russia. Yeah, early Russia was a viking empire, and started it's life as the Novgorod Empire.

The other Tribes are:

HUNS Set-up: Army Flumen Volga , Army Tmutarakan & Army Turk Empire The Huns were the nightmare of those times. Under the rule of Attila, thir hordes destroyed many cities from Russia to France, passin by the Balkans and through Germany, and conquered Persia, dismantling the Sassanid Empire. The Huns were not the first, nor the last, of many turk nomads who used to have the plains of russian rivers as pastures for their cattle and their horses in summer. Indeed, the usage of horses, and of archering over a horse, was their battle advantage. The Huns themselves can't be claimed as the "evil" barbarians, as they themselves were purged out of the turk empire, be it from war or drought, as have ever happened to some turk people, in the same way the german people have ever immigrated from Skan dinavia, be it from war or famine.

SARACENS Set-up: Army Arabia The saracens represent the beginning of the muslim expansioninsm, which started out in the 7th Century. This strong belief came from the people of the desert, and quickly spread out to Egypt and Baghdad. Their great challenge is building a navy and sailin west, and their great deed is capturing the Holy grounds of Jerusalem from the jews and the christians.

SLAVIANS Set-up: Army Polonia & Army western Slavonia The Slavian people were grand in quantity, but not in political and military quality. Their cities were the most democratic, but none of them was a center os power, except under foreign rulership, like Kiev and Novgorod. Anyway, the Slavians have ever been a mass force to be respected, and the many slavian migrations caused by foreigh disturbs have ever been a threat to all the kingdoms in Russia and in the Balkans.

And, finally the:

BYZANTINES Set-up: Army Asia & Army Athenae The byzantines carried the bastion of greco-roman civilization, and their Empire took more thousand years until finally falling to the turks. The byzantines had to fight to protect their capital, Byzantium, from pludering, and they also fought for recovering western mediterranean lands from the gremanic tribes. They were very sucessful, and their success was based on their maritime force over the Mediterranean.

Set-Up for a 9 players' game:

The Huns are the most important power by the beginnings of the game, so it is the not about to receive a pairing.

1) Anglo-Saxons + Byzantines 2) Britons + Ostrogoths 3) Burgundiones + Swedes&Ross 4) Franks + Slavians 5) Frisians + Saracens 6) Huns 7) Jutes&Danese + Visigoths 8) Lombards + Normans 9) Scots&Picts + Vandals&Avars

III Mapboard

There are 72 Supply Centers. About 4 SCs per Tribe. There are 108 non-SC provinces. Total 180 provinces (land and sea). So there are 2.5 provinces for each unit when all SCs are conquered.

The game starts in 450 AD and each turn is 5 years. Thus the first move was 455AD (spring 1901), then 460AD (autumn 1901) etc.

MAPBOARD EXPLANATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS:

1. Both dark provinces in Asia (Hyrcanian Sea and the Arabian Desert) are unpassable.

2. Coasts: Bithynia: NC and WC Britannia Superior: EC and WC Flumen Donets: EC and WC Lothian: EC and WC Macedonia: EC and WC Southern Highlands: EC and WC Sweden: EC , NC and WC Tarraconensis: EC and NC Thracia: EC and SC

3. "Channels" Direct Sea-to-Sea: Azov Sea - East Pontus Euxinus Mare Ionium - Mare Tyrrhenum Mare Lusitanium - Mare Hispanicum [if map is not clear enough] Sea-Land-Sea: Bornholn Sea - Denmark (Skandia) (Hedeby-Jutland) - Kattegat Iona - Scotia (Southern Highlands - Lothian) - Sea of Mann Mare Aegeus (Mare Cretensis) - Athenae - Mare Ionium Propontis - Byzancium (Nicaes) - Western Pontus Euxinus

4. "Bridges": Baetica - Mauretania Tingitana Byzancium - Nicaea Calabria - Catania Chersonesus - Tmutarakan Corsica - Sardinia Creta - Lycia *(only for fleets, through Rhodos, which is a part of Lycia)* Iona - Hebrid Islands *(see item 7.)* Lothian - Scotia - Northern Highlands Skandia - Denmark - Jutland (Hedeby) Turk Empire - Partia [map is not clear enough]

5. Rivers - Navegable Land Provinces Volga: Novgorod - Nizni-Novgorod - Bolgar - Flumen Volga Dniepr: Novgorod (Livonia - Flumen Dvina) - Flumen Dniepr

6. Sea Provinces which are SCs Gotland Iona Orkney Venezia

7. Sea Provinces which can be occupied by an Army if it is convoyed or built there: (the army can only get out of there by convoy, except on *) Gotland Hebrid Islands* Iona* Orkney Venezia *An army can freely move between Iona and the Hebrid Islands, but not to the british island from these places. It happens because Iona can be considered as an island of the Hebrid constellation.

8. Ocean Provinces: Fleets must have support to get into (not to stay in) them; fleets cannot retreat to them. (other features of "ocean provinces" are normal) Edge of the World Oceanus Atlanticus Setentrionalis Oceanus Atlanticus Australis

9. Abbreviations To know the abbreviations presented on the map, and conflicting abbreviations, click here.

IV The Tribes build their Kingdom

1- BSCs

1.1- Each power must to choose, every winter with the builds orders (even if none), which SCs, from among those it owns, are possible Build Centers (BSCs) for the next Winter phase. 1.2- Powers can only build in provinces previously chosen as BSCs for that specific year. 1.3- Each power has 4 (four) BSCs .

2- HSCs

2.1- The [H+1] Flag 2.1.1- When conquering its 3rd (third) SC, during Winter, the power is flagged [H+1]. The power is kept under this flag until next winter phase. 2.1.2- When a power reaches a winter phase under the [H+1] flag, and the power still has 3 (three) or more SCs, the flag is not renewed: such a power must to define one of its 4 BSCs as its 1st (first) Home Center (HSC) 2.1.3- If a power under the [H+1] flag reaches next winter with less than 3 SCs, it does not have to choose an HSC. 2.1.4- Once defined as an HSC for a power, a province stays as HSC for that power until the end of the game, or until another power define it as its own HSC. So the power with its first HSC can choose 3 more BSCs every winter.

2.2- The [H+2] Flag 2.2.1- When conquering its 6th (sixth) SC, during Winter, the power is flagged [H+2]. The power is kept under this flag until next winter phase. 2.2.2- When a power reaches a winter phase under the [H+2] flag, and the power still has 6 (six) or more SCs, the flag is not renewed: such a power must to define one of its BSCs as its 2nd (second) Home Center (HSC). 2.2.3- If a power under the [H+2] flag reaches next winter with less than 6 SCs it does not have to choose an HSC. 2.2.4- Once defined as an HSC for a power, a province stays as HSC for that power until the end of the game, or until another power define it as its own HSC. So, the power with its 2nd HSC can choose 2 more BSCs every winter.

2.3- The [H+3] Flag 2.3.1- When conquering its 9th (ninth) SC during Winter, the power is flagged [H+3]. The power is kept under this flag until next winter phase. 2.3.2- When a power reaches a winter phase under the [H+3] flag, and the power still has 9 (nine) or more SCs, the flag is not renewed: such a power must to define one of its BSCs as its 3rd (third) Home Center (HSC). 2.3.3- If a power under the [H+3] flag reaches next winter with less than 9 SCs, it does not have to choose an HSC. 2.3.4- Once defined as an HSC for a power, a province stays as HSC for that power until the end of the game, or until another power define it as its own HSC. So the power with its 3rd HSC can choose 1 more BSC every winter.

2.4- The [H+4] Flag 2.4.1- When conquering its 12th SC, during Winter, the power is flagged [H+4]. The power is kept under this flag until next winter phase. 2.4.2- When a power reaches a winter phase under the [H+4] flag, and the power still has 12 (twelve) or more SCs, the flag is not renewed: such a power must to define one of its BSCs as its 4th (fourth) Home Center (HSC). 2.4.3- If a power under the [H+4] flag reaches next winter with less than 12 SCs, it does not have to choose an HSC.. 2.4.4- Once defined as an HSC for a power, a province stays as HSC for that power until the end of the game, or until another power define it as its own HSC. So the power with its 4th HSC cannot choose BSCs anymore.

2.5- When defining its 4th HSC, the power has the option of "destroying" one of its 3 old HSCs. In such a case, the power stays flagged [H+4], but do not keep the option of one more BSC .

2.6- When reaching 15 (fifteen) SCs, the power receives its "last" [H+4] flag, and so its last chance of defining its 4th HSC, if it was not done yet.

3- Losing HSCs

3.1- When an HSC changes hands, the province stays as an HSC for the power who created it 3.2- The new owner may declare such a foreign HSC as a BSC for his own, but the province will still be an HSC for the one who created it 3.3- The new owner may declare such a foreign HSC as an HSC for his own, if apropriate, and then it will no longer be an HSC for the original power. In this case, the old owner of the HSC receives the apropriate [H+X] flag. 3.4- A power can receive only one flag at a time (it receives the smaller flag). 3.5- If a power with 4 or more HSCs is reduced to 9 or less SCs, it must to "destroy" one of its HSCs, thus having 3 (or more) HSCs and 1 (or none) BSC anywhere. 3.6- If a power with 3 or more HSCs is reduced to 6 or less SCs, it must to "destroy" one of its HSCs, thus having 2 HSCs and 2 (or less) BSCs anywhere. 3.7- If a power with 2 or more HSCs is reduced to 3 or less SCs, it must to "destroy" one of its HSCs, thus having 1 HSCs and 3 (or less) BSCs anywhere.

4- Exceptions

4.1- The Byzantines The bizantines are the legitime sustainers of the Eastern Roman Empire (ERE); they are not a nomadic people, so they are not under the above rules. The byzantines already start the game with defined HSCs. 4.1.1- The ERE consists of the following provinces: Asia, Athenae, Byzancium, Capadocia, Moesia Inferior, Phoenicia, Pontus and Thracia. 4.1.2- All ERE provinces are HSCs for the byzantines, although only Asia and Athenae start the game under their control. 4.1.3- Once conquered by the barbarians, the following ERE provinces are subject to become HSCs to other powers, but they don't lose their ERE status: once reconquered by the byzantines, the ERE provinces back to be byzantine HSCs: Capadocia, Chersonesus, Phoenicia and Pontus. 4.1.4- The following ERE provinces cannot be claimed as HSC by other powers (although they can be simple BSCs for them): Asia, Athenae, Byzancium and Thracia. They are treated as ISCs (and Byzancium, as an ICC ). See item 5.2.1 an further. Once reconquered back, these provinces return to be ISCs for the bizantines (ICC for Byzancium).

4.2- The Huns The Huns are nomads for their way of life and society organization. They will never receive any [H+X] flag. As nomads, the Huns are used to run long distances. They are not subject to the need of building a sedentary kingdom. 4.2.1- All turk hordes come from Central Asia. The Province Turk Empire is the only HSC for the Huns, and cannot be claimed as HSC (but it do can be a BSC) for any other power. Turk Empire is treat as an ICC for the Huns. See item 5.2.2 and further. 4.2.2- Thus, the turks will ever have 3 BSCs to define each new winter, even is they lose the Turk Empire province. Once reconquered, Turk Empire returns to be an ICC for the Huns.

4.3- The Western Roman Empire (WRE) The following italian provonces are the remains of the WRE and they are not subject to become HSC for any power: Etruria, Neapolis, Rome and Venezia. These provinces are densely populated, and making them Homes would destroy the SC on it, and it's impossible. These provinces are treated as being ISCs (and Rome an ICC ) of a non-existent power (the Roman E mpire). See item 5.3

5- Winning the Game

5.1- Once the power reaches 20 SCs, it can make more HSCs, up to the maximum of 8 HSCs, simply by successfully holding (explicitly Hold) position on a possessed SC during a whole year (spring + fall). 5.1.1- This is not granted to the Byzantines, as they already have 8 HSCs (the ERE). 5.1.2- This is not granted to the Huns, as they never build HSCs. Once at 15+ SCs, the Huns start to assign 4 BSCs , plus the Turk Empire. At 20+, the Huns can assign 5 BSCs. At 25+, 6 . At 30+, 7 .

5.2- Once the power reaches 25 SCs, its Kingdom becomes an Empire. The power is entitled to grant to 4 (four) HSCs the status of Imperial Centers (ISCs) , and to one of the ISCs the Imperial Capital City status (ICC) . 5.2.1- This is not granted to the Byzantines, as the provinces Asia, Athenae, Byzancium and Thracia start the game as ISCs for them, and Byzancium start the game as the ICC of the Byzantines. But Byzancium will only work as an Imperial Capital City when they reach 25. 5.2.2- This is not granted to the Huns. The province Turk Empire already starts the game as an ISC and ICC for them, but it will only work as an Imperial Capital when they reach 25. 5.2.3- An Empire owning the WRE provinces can freely assign them as ISCs, as long as the power does not exceed the limit of 8 HSCs. An Empire owning Rome must to assign ir as its ICC .

5.3- All ISCs will ever be HSCs for its power, and for no one else (never). Rules 3.2 to 3.7 don't apply for them. ISCs do can become BSCs for anyone.

5.4- Empires can announce, each winter, an Imperial Order. 5.4.1- An Imperial Order consists on a [target SC'Province] flag. The SC'province must be not owned by the Empire. 5.4.2- If the target province is conquered in the just following year, the Imperial Capital City raises +1 its SC'total in the province. This additional build can be only made in the ICC . The Empire can announce another Imperial Order. 5.4.3- If the target province is not conquered in the just following year, all imperial units in provinces adjacent to the target-province will NMR (Hold, and any support they receive is "void", and is destroyed if dislodged) for the entire following year, and cannot be disbanded in the current and the following year (they will only be destroyed if dilodged). 5.4.4- In case of failure on performing the Imperial Order, the Empire must to announce one of the following Imperial Orders: 5.4.4.1- Repeat the same Imperial Order 5.4.4.2- Announcing [Retire Imperial Order]. In this case, not only the units in provinces adjacent to the target-province will NMR, but all units in provinces adjacent to those adjacent to the target will also NMR for the entire following year, and cannot be disbanded in the current and the following year.

5.5- Wins the Empire reaching 37 SCs, including all raises to the Imperial Capital City.


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