Latin American Diplomacy

by Michael Zmolek

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PROVINCES WITH MULTIPLE COASTS/BANKS/SHORES:

There are, in all, twenty-nine provinces with multiple sea coasts, river banks, or lake shores or combinations of these.  Fleets and River Flotillas must specify which coast/bank/shore they are on when moving to/in/from such provinces.   Designations preferred by the GM are given below, but ANY DESIGNATION WHICH IS INTELLIGIBLE IS ACCEPTABLE.

PROVINCES WITH MULTIPLE RIVER BANKS:

Twelve provinces on the map have more than one RIVER COAST; players must specify which coast they are occupying when moving a River Flotilla into such provinces.

Six of these provinces have simply a North Bank [nb] and a South Bank [sb], these are:  VICHADA, META, AMAZONAS DE VENEZUELA, AMAZONAS (de Brazil), TIGRE, and JAPURA. 

Note: The South Bank of AMAZONAS (de Brazil) borders only on CUIABA; the Nort Bank includes all the rest of the river borders AMAZONAS shares with other provinces.

Four of these provinces have an East Bank [eb] and a West Bank [wb]: CORIENTES, SAN PEDRO, CAMPO GRANDES, and GOIAS.

Two of these provinces have more than two banks: VAUPES has three banks: North [nb], Central [cb] and South [sb]; Cuiaba has five banks: West [wb], Northwest [nwb], Northeast [neb], East [eb] and South [sb].

Examples: Brazil: R Para to Cuiaba [nwb];  or Colombia: R Meta to Vaupes [nb].

Note: Provinces like Amazonas, Para, Asuncion, Entre Rios, or Boqueron do not require coastal (bank) designations, as the various waterways running through or around them are connected in or along the border of these areas.

PROVINCES WITH RIVER BANKS AND SEA COASTS:

Nine provinces have a river bank on part of their border, and a sea coast on another part, and the two borders do not connect.  It is not necessary for players to designate the coast/bank when a fleet occupies such spaces, but IT IS NECESSARY when the province is occupied by a River Flotilla. 

These provinces are:  MISSISSIPPI, CARACAS, GUARICO, GUYANA, MARANHAO, SAO PAULO, PARANA, SANTA CATARINA, and RIO GRANDE DO SUL.

For these provinces, the designations Sea Coast [sc] and River Bank [rb] will be adequate.

PROVINCES WITH MULTIPLE SEA COASTS:

Six provinces on the map have more than one SEA COAST; players must specify which coast they are occupying when moving a fleet into such a province.

CAMAGUEY: a land province.   North Coast [nc] opens to Bahama Bank.  South Coast [sc] opens to Jardines. 

COSTA RICA: a land province.  North Coast [nc] opens to Baha Punta Gorda and Golfo De Los Misquitos.  South Coast [sc] opens to Golfo De Fonseca, Cocos Ridge and Golfo De Chiriqu. 

GUATEMALA: a land province and neutral supply center.  North Coast [nc] opens to Gulf of Honduras.  South Coast [sc] opens to Golfo De tehuantepec and Guatemala Basin.  

HONDURAS: a land province and neutral supply center.  North Coast [nc] opens to Gulf of Honduras, West Caribbean Sea and Islas de Providence y San Andrs.  South Coast [sc] opens to Golfo De Fonseca. 

PANAMA: a land province and home supply center.  North Coast [nc] opens onto Golfo de los Mosquitos and Golfo del Darien.  South Coast [sc] opens to Golfo de Chiriqu and Golfo de Panama. 

Note: Should a canal be built through Panama, the province becomes porous and no designation of the coast is necessary any longer.

SANTA CLARA: a land province.  North Coast [nc] opens to Florida Channel and Bahama Bank.  South Coast [sc] opens to Islas Juvenes and Jardines. 

PROVINCES WITH LAKE SHORES AND RIVER BANKS:

LA PAZ has a Lake Shore [ls] and a River Bank [rb].

PROVINCES WITH LAKE SHORES AND SEA COASTS:

Len and Miskito Coast each have both a Lake Shore [ls] and a Sea Coast [sc].

Note: Should a canal be built through either province, the province becomes porous and no designation of coast or shore is necessary any longer.

(BUILDING) CANALS AND POROUS PROVINCES

No provinces are presently marked with canals, but canals can be built in Panama, or Nicaragua (Miskito Coat and Lon).  No coastal specification is necessary when moving a fleet or river flotilla into a canal province, as these provinces are porous.

Note that canals do not permit a fleet to move from one side to the other without first occupying the province (e.g. assuming there is a completed canal in Panama, a fleet or river flotilla may not move Golfo de Panama to Golfo de los Misquitos in one turn, it must first occupy Panama).

There are presently no porous provinces connecting sea provinces on the Latin American Diplomacy map.  However, there are some porous provinces which allow travel along rivers that cut through the province, and thus allow for River Flotillas to travel through the province [i.e.  from one province (A), into the porous province (B), into a third province (C), where C does not border B].  This is significant only because River Flotillas are restricted to travelling along contiguous river pathways unless they are ordered to move from one coast to another within the same province [see Rule 6.B].

BUILDING THE PANAMA CANAL: 

In order to build a canal across Panama, connecting Golfo de Panama with Golfo de los Misquitos, the canal must be controlled by the building power, and that power must have a unit present and holding in the province of Panama on the turn the order 'Build Panama Canal' is given.

The cost of building the canal will be four years worth of one units builds.  That is to say that a single power controlling Panama may forego one build and play one unit short for four consecutive years, at the end of which the Canal will be completed.  Each year the said player will order:  "Build Panama Canal" instead of submitting an earned build (or one due from the previous year because the build was then foregone for the same purpose).

If, during this period, another power takes over Panama, then the number of builds foregone is subtracted from the number needed to complete the Canal.  The GMs reports will track the progress of canal building. 

Example: A player who controls Panama, and has three builds due on a particular turn, may spend all three builds on building the Canal if s/he so chooses.  A unit must be present in Panama and must HOLD on the turn when the order to build is given.

Players not in control of Panama may contribute to the building of the Canal by foregoing builds they are due.  They too may order Build Panama Canal, in lieu of building a unit, submitting the command one time for each build foregone.  However, this contribution towards the building of the canal will not count if the occupying power does not also submit the order Build Panama Canal on the same Second Retreat and Build Phase.  

Once four builds have been spent on the building of the canal, the Canal will open in the first movement phase (A phase: March-June) of the succeeding year.

Example: The fourth build is spent in the build phase (D Phase: December-March) of 1891;  units will be able to use the canal in the first movement phase (A Phase: March-June) of 1892.

BUILDING THE NICARAGUA CANAL:

Players may alternately or additionally build the Nicaragua Canal.  This canal will cost in total only THREE units foregone.  Moreover, the canal can be built in two parts: building the section through Miskito Coast, connecting Baha Punta Gorda with Lago de Nicaragua will cost 2 units, and building the section through Lon, connecting Golfo de Fonseca with Lago de Nicaragua will cost 1 unit.  Otherwise the same rules apply; a power must control the province where the building takes place and must have a unit present in that province on the D Phase (December-March) when the order to build the canal is given.
 
Note, however, that a power could build the Canal through Lon, while not in control of Miskito, and vice-versa.  If, before either section of the Nicaragua Canal is completed, a fleet or river flotilla is placed in Lago de Nicaragua, it will not have any effect on the building unless the unit captures Miskito Coast or Lon.

MOUNTAINOUS BORDERS:

The Latin American map has mountainous borders running along the western land provinces.   Each border is marked in red instead of black.  The mountainous regions are governed by four different of rules.  There are two specific regions: the Chilean Andes, and the Greater Andes (which includes the Chilean Andes).  But the first rule applies to all mountainous regions:

i. ALL MOUNTAINOUS BORDERS:  One blanket restriction applies to all mountainous borders on the Latin American Diplomacy map: NO UNIT MAY RETREAT ACROSS A MOUNTAINOUS BORDER ON ANY RETREAT PHASE (B or D Phases).

Note: One additional blanket rule applies to all mountainous borders: no River Flotilla may order support across a mountainous border (see Rule 6.E below).

ii.  MOUNTAIN PROVINCES (MP), i.e. PROVINCES WITH ONLY MOUNTAINOUS BORDERS:   Seven provinces on the Latin American Diplomacy Map have borders which are entirely mountainous, NO UNIT LOCATED IN ONE OF THESE PROVINCES MAY OFFER SUPPORT to any other unit.  These provinces are: MEXICO CITY, BARQUISIMETO, AYACUCHO, COCHABAMBA, POTOSI, CORDILLERA DOMEYKO and JUJUY. 

[N.B.: LA PAZ and PUNO border on Lago Titicaca, and thus each have one border that is not mountainous, so the above rule does not apply to them.]

iii.  GREATER ANDES:  This is the mountainous border starting from the Peruvian border of PIURA/CAJAMARCA running south to Chilean/Argentinean border of AISEN/SANTA CRUZ. (N.B. this includes the CHILEAN ANDES [see below]).  THE ATTACK STRENGTH OF ANY UNIT CROSSING THESE BORDERS = ZERO; only the supporting units count towards an attack.

Example:  Bolivian A Ayacucho to Lima; Supported by A Huanuco and A San Martin.   Peruvian A Lima Holds; Supported by A Ancash.  The attack fails *Conflict of Equal Forces* (2 v 2).  However, if Peru has no A Ancash (or other support), the attack succeeds.

iv.  CHILEAN ANDES: This border, part of the Greater Andes, runs south from the border between ATACAMA and CATAMARCA to the border of AISEN/SANTA CRUZ.   During the FIRST MOVEMENT PHASE (A Phase: March-June) of any year, NO ARMY MAY CROSS this mountainous border UNLESS SUPPORTED by another unit.

Example 1: note how all both the above rules (5.C.iii and iv) apply:  It is the first movement phase (A Phase: March-June)...  Chile: A Atacama Holds with support ordered from F Punta Tetas.  Argentina: A San Juan to Atacama with support from A La Rio Ja and A Coquimbo.  The Argentinian A from San Juan manages to get across the border (Rule 5.C.iv), but: *CEF* (2 v 2) (Rule 5.C.iii), so the attack fails. 

Example 2:  In Example 1, if the Argentinian A from San Juan had no support in crossing, and the Chilean A Atacama was ordered to support, say, an A in Cordillera Domeyko, then the support for A Cordillera Domeyko would not be cut as the A San Juan would not make it across the mountains. 

Example 3: Now let us add: Chilean A Antofagasta Hold; British F Chile Trench to Punta Tetas.  The Argentinian attack now succeeds *CSF* (2 v 1) (since Support from Punta Tetas is cut), and what is more, the Chilean army must be disbanded, as it cannot retreat to the only open province (Catamarca) since that lies over a mountainous border (Rule 5.C.i).

Example 4: Now change the A Cordillera Domeyko to a Bolivian A which Supports Argentinas  A San Juan to Atacama.  The support order is invalid (Rule 5.C.ii) and so Argentinas attack still  only succeeds if BRI F Chile Trench cuts support from Punta Tetas.

RAINFOREST PROVINCES (RF) & BORDERS

The maps show dark green borders between and around certain provinces.

i.  ALL RAINFOREST BORDERS:  A blanket restriction applies to all Armies, but not to River Flotillas: NO ARMY MAY SUPPORT ORDER SUPPORT ACROSS A RAINFOREST BORDER.

ii.  RAINFOREST PROVINCES (RF), i.e. PROVINCES WITH ONLY RAINFOREST BORDERS:  13 provinces on the Latin American Diplomacy Map have borders which are solidly green Rainforest borders.  ONCE AN ARMY HAS ENTERED such a province, IT MAY NOT MOVE ON THE SUCCEEDING TURN, EXCEPT TO THE PROVINCE FROM WHICH IT ENTERED. 

These provinces are: VICHADA, VAUPES, AMAZONAS DE VENEZUELA, RIO BRANCO, CAHUINARI, TIGRE, LORETO, ACRE, AMAZONAS, JAPURA, MANAUS, PARA and CAMPO GRANDE. 

Example: First Movement Phase (A Phase): Peru: A Cuiaba to Para; R Rondonia to Amazonas.  Second Movement Phase (C Phase): Peru: A Para to Manaus, supported by R Amazonas.  The support order is valid, but not the movement order; hence  Para does not move.  If Peru wants to take Manaus, it can order R Amazonas to Manaus, but A Para cannot support the move (Rule 5.D.1).

SWAMPY PROVINCES (SW):

There are three swampy provinces on the Latin American Diplomacy Map: FORMOSA, BOQUERON and SAN PEDRO.  NO ARMY located in one of these provinces MAY OFFER SUPPORT TO ANOTHER UNIT, OR BE SUPPORTED TO HOLD in that province by another unit (i.e. the defense strength of such an army cannot exceed one). 

Note that: 1) no restrictions apply to River Flotillas; 2) an army may be supported to move OUT of the swampy province, even to another swampy province. 

OCEANS, SEAS AND ISLAND PROVINCES (IP):

i.  OCEAN PROVINCES:  The darker shade of blue in the water areas denotes Ocean provinces, the lighter blue areas are sea provinces.  Only one fleet or river flotilla may enter a Sea Province at a time [as in standard Diplomacy], but there is no limit to how many Fleets may enter an Ocean Province.  (Note: River Flotillas may enter Sea Provinces but lose their attack strength when entering Ocean Provinces, and may not occupy any land province which does not have a river coursing through it, or
which does not border a river [see Rule 6.B]. 

Special Rules must therefore govern the Ocean Provinces.  Any Fleet ordered into an Ocean Province will not come into conflict with other fleets unless specifically ordered to attack the fleets of another power, or when (a) fleet(s) of another power are specifically ordered to attack that fleet.  Thus players must add the specific order attack (AT) to their orders, when they wish to attempt to remove or force the disbanding of another powers fleet.

Examples:
1)  Brazil: F Equatorial Atlantic Ocean Holds; France: F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Equatorial Atlantic Ocean.  Result: both fleets sail happily in the same province.
2)  Brazil: F Equatorial Atlantic Ocean S F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Cape Verde Islands; France: F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Equatorial Atlantic Ocean A Brazil.  Result: *CEF* (1 v 1), France cuts Brazils support for F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Cape Verde.
3) Brazil: F Equatorial Atlantic Ocean S F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Cape Verde Islands; France: F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Equatorial Atlantic Ocean AT Brazil, supported by F Guiana Basin.  Result: *CSF* (2 v 1), Brazils support for F Middle Atlantic Ocean to Cape Verde is not possible as F Equatorial Atlantic Ocean must retreat (with many options).

So how do you force the disband of an opposing F in an Ocean?  It is possible.  Your attack must have an attack strength 3 greater than the opposing powers fleet.

Example: Britain: F Bermuda Triangle to Sargasso Sea East AT Spain, supported by F Bermuda Islands, F Bermuda Triangle AS WELL AS F Sargasso Sea East (!).   Spain: F Sargasso Sea East Holds.  Result: Spanish F is not allowed to retreat, and is disbanded. 

NOTE that this rule does not apply to fleets in Sea Provinces; if a F in a Sea Province is on the losing side of a (4 vs. 1) or even a (5 v 1) *CSF*, etc. so long as it has somewhere to retreat, it may do so.

NOTE also that the attacking F does not have to be moving into the space to make the attack.

Example: Chile: F Peru Basin AT Peru, Supported by: F Peru Basin, F Peru Basin, and F Peru Basin.  Peru: F Peru Basin AT Chile.  Result: Peruvian F Peru Basin must disband.

Finally here, bounces occur in Ocean Provinces the same as in other provinces, but only when an attack is ordered by one side or the other.

Example: Colombia orders: F Galapagos Island to East Pacific Rise At Peru; Mexico Orders F Middle America Trench to East Pacific Rise AT Peru; Peru
orders: F Peru Trench to East Pacific Rise.  Result: all three fleets bounce.  Note that if Mexico, for example, had not added AT Peru to the order, then the Mexican F would move to the East Pacific Rise.

ISLAND PROVINCES AND WATER BARRIERS

Islands like Jamaica have no water barrier.  Islands like the group Galapagos Islands do.  Both types of provinces may be occupied by an Army, a Fleet, or a River Flotilla.  Armies, however, can only reach islands by being convoyed to them.  The lack of a coastal border on islands with a water barrier does not alter the rules in this regard.  Thus an army can be convoyed from Surinam to Trinidad & Tobago by a Fleet in  Guiana Basin. Where the islands with water barriers DO differ from those without is that a F in an Island Province with a water barrier may convoy an army, while a F in an island with no water barrier may not. 

Example: Britain: A Guyana to Barbados; F Trinidad and Tobago C A Guyana to Barbados.   Result: the move is valid and succeeds.

There are two Islands without water barriers on the map: JAMAICA and ISLA WELLINGTON.   These are technically Coastal Provinces (CP) [See Rule 5.L below].  "Islands" with more than one province are also NOT Island Provinces, and are comprised of Coastal Provinces, e.g. Hispaniola is comprised of HAITI and the DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.  CUBA is comprised of HABANA, SANTA CLARA, etc.

Such Islands which are or are made up of Coastal Provinces can not be convoyed through.

Example: Venezuela: A Magdalena to Santiago de Cuba; F  South Caribbean Sea C, F Jamaica C, F Windward Passage C.  Result: the move would fail if South Caribbean Sea and Windward Passage were not connected, but they are, so the order F Jamaica C is pointless anyway, as it would be under any circumstances.  But one could imagine an attempt to order: "F Haiti Convoy A Dominican Republic to Windward Passage"   This would not be allowed.

Exception: There ARE some provinces which are Island Provinces but which do connect by land to one another:

MAGALLANES SUR connects to TIERRA DEL FUEGO [Rule 5.J.4.i]
ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY connects to ST. CROIX [Rule 5.J.4.ii]

FInally, Many Sea Provinces have some small islands showing, but are not considered Island Provinces, and therefore cannot have armies placed in them.

GLACIER PROVINCES (GP): 

There is one glacial province on the Latin American Diplomacy Map: GRAHAM LAND.  NO FLEET OR RIVER FLOTILLA may enter a glacial province.  [For an explanation of the unmarked space to the East of Graham Land, see G, Unmarked Spaces, below].

LAKE PROVINCES (LP):

There are two Lake Provinces on the Latin American Diplomacy Map: LAGO DE NICARAGUA, and LAGO TITICACA.  [LAGO DE MARACAIBO and LAGOA DOS PATOS are technically Sea Provinces].   Lake Provinces are playable with both Fleets and River Flotillas (but not Armies, of course).  Bolivia has the option of building a F La Paz [ls].

DESERT PROVINCES (DP):

There are three desert provinces, all adjacent and all part of Chile, on the Latin American Map: ANTOFAGASTA, ATACAMA and TARAPACA. 

A blanket rule applies to all Desert Provinces:  NO UNIT IN ONE DESERT PROVINCE MAY SUPPORT ANOTHER UNIT INTO, OR TO HOLD IN AN ADJACENT DESERT PROVINCE.  Note that this means that a unit in a desert province may support a unit in an adjacent desert province to move into a non-desert province.

SPECIAL PROVINCES & HARD TO READ AREAS:

1.  TRISTAN DA CUNHA GROUP and SALA-Y-GOMEZ:

These provinces are to be treated as simply sea provinces for now.  [In the global variant, they will be island provinces].

2.  NON-TRAVERSABLE CORNERS:

No unit may move between the following sets of  provinces, as they do not border one another:

* VERA CRUZ to CHIAPAS
* TOBASCO to OAXACA

* CORDILLERA DOMEYKO to CATAMARCA
* SALTA to ATACAMA

* SANTIAGO to SAN JUAN
* COQUIMBO to MENDOZA

* CARACAS to BOLIVAR DE VENEZUELA
* GUARICO to APURE

Also, no unit may make the reverse move, e.g. no unity may order Apure to Guarico.

Note: GUADALAJARA DOES border SAN LUIS POTOSI, and thus ZACATECAS does NOT border GUAGAJUATO.

Note Further: BUENOS ARIES does NOT border on URUGUAY.

3. WHERE ARMIES MAY CROSS WATER:

Armies may always cross rivers.  There are a few spots on the map where they may cross sea waters:

i.  THE FALKLANDS: 

Due to the close proximity of WEST FALKLAND and EAST FALKLAND, a Fleet, River Flotilla or Army may move from one to the other in one turn, without having to enter FALKLAND SOUND, except when FALKLAND SOUND is occupied by any unit.  In addition, so long as FALKLAND SOUND is vacant, a unit in either Falkland island may be supported by a FLEET (but not an Army or River Flotilla) in the other Falkland island.

Note: A F in Falkland Sound could convoy an army from East Falkand to West Falkland or vice-versa.

ii.  TRINIDAD & TOBAGO:

Any army may cross freely between TRINIDAD & TOBAGO and GUARICO or MONAGAS.

iii. ISLA DE MARAJO:

Any army may cross freely between ISLA DE MARAJO and its three neighbouring provinces: PARA, AMAPA, and BELEM [Note: the tiny islands in the Amazon are not playable].

iv. ISLA WELLINGTON:

Any army may cross freely betwee ISLA WELLINGTON and AISEN and between ISLA WELLINGTON and PUERTO ARENAS.

4. ADDITIONAL CLARIFICATIONS:

i. ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY:

The tiniest province on the map, ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY is a French possession, but is connected to the Dutch Province of ST. CROIX by land [the island of St. Maarten (St. Martin) is divided between the two provinces].  Thus any unit, including armies, may cross freely from ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY to ST. CROIX.  The other two provinces bordering ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY are UPPER BRITISH ANTILLES, and the VIRGIN ISLANDS (these two are NOT connected to ST. MAARTEN & ST. BARTHELEMY by land).

ii. MAGALLANES SUR & TIERRA DEL FUEGO:

MAGALLANES SUR and TIERRA DEL FUEGO are clearly connected by land, and so any army may freely cross between them.  A River Flotilla may NOT enter these provinces, as they are technically Coastal Provinces. [See Rule 6.B]

iii. GUADALAJARA:

GUADALAJARA appears as an Upland Province on the map, as it does not appear to touch any waters.  It is to be played, however, as a Coastal
Province, as it touches MIDDLE AMERICA TRENCH.  MEXICO may build a F in GUADALAJARA.

iv. AISEN,  ISLA WELLINGTON & PUNTA ARENAS

AISEN includes islands that are not part of Golfo de Corcovoda.  It borders on CHILE RISE and ISLA WELLINGTON, but does not have two coasts bordering CHILE RISE.

ISLA WELLINGTON is a poorly defined province on the map.  It borders on AISEN, GOLFO DE PENAS, PUNTA ARENAS, and CHILE RISE.  ISLA WELLINGTON is not to be considered an Island Province, but a Coastal Province.

PUNTA ARENAS is a COASTAL PROVINCE which includes islands that stretch out into but are not part of ESTRECHO DE MAGALLANES and CHILE RISE.  It borders 4 other provinces: AISEN, ISLA WELLINGTON, SANTA CRUZ, and BAHIA GRANDE.

v. SAN PEDRO & TARIJA:

Any Army or River Flotilla may move between SAN PEDRO and TARIJA.

vi. MARACAIBO:

MARACAIBO does not border GOLFO DE VENEZUELA.

vii. GOLFO DE VENEZUELA:

GOLFO DE VENEZUELA does not border MARACAIBO, but DOES border SOUTH CARIBBEAN SEA.

viii. ANTOFAGASTA:

(For a special rule concerning Antofagasta, see Rule 7.B.)

UNMARKED SPACES:

Any unmarked spaces on the board are not playable.  [They will likely become playable in the global variant.]  The unmarked Ice Shelf to the right of GRAHAM LAND is LARSEN ICE SHELF, it forms a division between GRAHAM LAND and WEDDELL SEA so that the two provinces are not to be considered adjacent.  ICE SHELVES are impassable by any unit. 

SUMMARY OF PROVINCES:

Two types of provinces have not been identified yet.  Every land province is either a Coastal Province (CP) or an Upland Province (UP).     Thus an MP is also an UP.  Either type could be a DP, a GP, an RF or an SW, but neither could be an IP, LP, OP or SP.  These abbreviations will be given in the List of Provinces provided along with these rules, and only those CPs and UPs which dont fall into any other category will be identified as CPs and UPs.
     
NEW UNIT: THE RIVER FLOTILLA:

The River Flotilla (R) is designed as the unit for getting around in the
rainforests of the Amazon. 

BUILDING A RIVER FLOTILLA:

A  River Flotilla may be built on any Home or Capital Supply Center  which is a coastal province, island province, or any province which  has a river bank or lake shore. 

MOVEMENT

i. RIVER FLOTILLAS MAY TRAVEL ALONG RIVERS:

A River Flotilla (R) has the uniqe ability to travel along river routes in Coastal Provinces with river banks and Upland Provinces.

FLEETS MAY NOT TRAVEL ALONG RIVERS in this variant [they may, however, occupy lakes].

A River Flotilla must travel along river routes when on land.

Example: R Guyana [rib] to Para.  Result:  The order is invalid; Para         has no river border with Guayana.

ii. RIVER FLOTILLAS MAY NOT OCCUPY LAND PROVINCES WITH NO RIVERS:

Where RIVER FLOTILLAS fall short of the abilities of fleets is that they MAY NOT OCCUPY ANY COASTAL PROVINCE OR UPLAND PROVINCE WHICH DOES NOT HAVE A RIVER COURSING THROUGH IT, OR which DOES NOT BORDER A RIVER. 

This rule does not prevent a River Flotilla from supporting another unit to hold or move into such a Coastal Province, which it may do.

ii.  RIVER FLOTILLAS MAY OCCUPY SEA PROVINCES AND OCEAN PROVINCES:

River Flotillas may occupy Sea Provinces and Ocean Provinces; however, when a River Flotilla enters any Sea Province which is not directly adjacent to a Coastal Province, or ANY OCean Province, it cannot support another unit, and has an attack strength of zero.  It can be supported to hold or to move into such a province, however, and in  such a case its attack strength equals the number of supporting units.

Example: Argentina: R Falkland Current Hold; F West Falkland S R Falkland Current Hold.  Brazil: F Argentine Basin to Falkland Current; F Falkland Sound S F Argentine Basin to Falkland Current.  Result: *CSF* (2 v 1).   The R must retreat, as its attack strength of one, due to the support, is less than the Brazil Fleet's attack strength of two.

iii.  RIVER FLOTILLAS MAY OCCUPY ISLAND PROVINCES:

River Flotillas may occupy Island Provinces.  [This does not include: JAMAICA, ISLA WELLINGTON, MAGALLANES SUR or TIERRA DEL FUEGO, which are all technically COASTAL PROVINCES.]  R's occupying Island Provinces may not support units in adjacent Sea or Ocean Provinces, but MAY support units in adjacent Island Provinces [see 6.E below]. 

iv.  CROSSING BETWEEN COASTS/BANKS/SHORES OF SAME PROVINCE:

River Flotillas may be ordered to cross from one sea coast/river bank/lake shore to another.  This equals one turn.  Here are some examples of valid orders:

R La Paz[rib] to La Paz [ls]
R Cuiaba [eb] to Cuiaba [sb]
R Guyana [rib] to [sec]

Such moves may be supported, and such a support order will be understood as a support order to Hold.

CONVERTING FLEETS TO RIVER FLOTILLAS:

A Fleet may be converted into a River Flotilla simply by being ordered to travel up a river.  Note that fleets can, of course, occupy coastal
provinces which border on or have a river coursing through them.  But once ordered to proceed to an inland province by way of a river, a Fleet AUTOMATICALLY becomes a River Flotilla.  The GM will leave an Anchor Marker where the Fleet left behind its large ships (in the Coastal Province).

Example:  F Amapa to Para [becomes R, Anchor Marker left in Amapa].

Notes:

1)  a Fleet may be ordered to convert into a River Flotilla at any time, but this costs one turn unless the order is for the Fleet to travel from a Coastal Province to an Upland Province.

2)  Further, a FLEET may not be ordered to move from one coast/bank/shore to another.

Example: F Guyana [sec] to Guyana [rib]  Result: Invalid order.

3)  Finally, A Fleet may NEVER support a unit or a move into any Upland Province.

ANCHOR MARKERS AND CONVERTING RIVER FLOTILLAS TO FLEETS:

A River Flotilla which moves into a Coastal Province where an Anchor Marker has been left may convert into a Fleet by capturing the ships.  Anchor Markers are never identified with a particular power, and thus the anchor marker (the ships) captured by a River Flotilla need not be ones left by that same power in order for the River Flotilla to convert into a Fleet. 

If the River Flotilla enters the Coastal Province from the same coast as the one where the Anchor Marker was left, then it may move into the Coastal Province and convert into a Fleet on the same Movement Phase.  For example:

(Anchor Marker left at Guyana [sec]): R Trinidad & Tobago to Guyana[sec], convert to Fleet.

But the River Flotilla must first change banks/coasts if the Anchor Marker is not on the same bank/coast/shore as that from which it enters.

Example:  Fall: R Rio Branco to Guyana [rib]; Spring: R Guyana [rib] to Guyana [sec], convert to Fleet.

The command given must make it clear that the player wishes to convert the R into an F.  Commands such as capture ships, etc. are not specific enough.

A Fleet may also capture an Anchor Marker, or destroy one. 

To capture an Anchor Marker, a Fleet moving into a Coastal Province where an Anchor Marker is located must order capture ships or capture Anchor Marker.  This can be ordered on the same turn. Then the Fleet may take the additional ships with it wherever it goes, and the Anchor Marker symbol will travel with that Fleet on the map, until the Fleet is in a Coastal Province and orders Release Anchor Marker, leaving the anchor marker in that province.  The Release Anchor Marker command cannot be given on the same turn in which a Fleet converts into a River Flotilla.  A fleet may not capture more than one anchor marker at a time.

TO DESTROY AN ANCHOR MARKER a fleet which has captured, or is in the same Coastal Province as the Anchor Marker may be ordered to: Sink Additional Ships or Disband Anchor Marker, etc.  The order costs one turn, i.e. it cannot be given on a turn when the Fleet is moving or converting.

Armies and River Flotillas may not destroy anchor markers.

ORDERING SUPPORT WITH A RIVER FLOTILLA:

River Flotillas may not offer support to any unit in a Sea Province or Ocean Province.  River Flotillas are not restricted by Rainforest Borders, however, and can order support across Rainforest Borders, EVEN to provinces where they cannot travel, with the exception that they CANNOT order support across mountain borders. 

Example: R Napo S A Pastaza.  Result: Order is valid.

Example: R Beni S A Santa Cruz to Cochabamba.  Result: Order is Invalid *IO*.

When occupying Island Provinces, R's may support units in other Island Provinces to hold, but not in Sea or Ocean Provinces, or to move into or out of Island Provinces.

As noted in Rule 6.B.ii, R's may support units to hold, move into or move out of Coastal Provinces which have no river borders or rivers coursing through them.

THE FOUR TYPES OF SUPPLY CENTERS

A. CAPITAL CENTERS AND BUILDING OFF OF SCS

i. CAPITAL CENTERS AND THE YEAR 1890D: 

Eight powers in the game have Capital Centers. There are thus a total of eight  Capital Centers supporting 16 units.  The imperial powers: Britain, France, Spain and the United States, do not have Capital Centers. Control of a capital center allows for two builds.  Only one build may be made on the Capital Center itself, however. 

The first turn of the game will be a Phase D turn, a build turn, specifically, 1980D.  On this turn, those powers with Capital Centers showing on the map may build a unit on any space which belongs to their power, including Island Provinces.

Example:  1890D: Chile orders B F Islas San Felix.  Peru orders: Build R Loreto, (and so on).

ii. BUILDING OFF OF SUPPLY CENTERS:

After this, on D Phases in years ending in -5 and -0, All powers who continue to control their capital centres will be allowed to make ONE build earned on any province which they occupied at the beginning of the game unless:  a) it is presently occupied by any unit; or b) it is a province with a supply center that is no longer under the control of that power.  This INCLUDES the imperial powers (Britain, Spain, USA, and France), and since these powers' captials are not on the map, thus meaning they can never lose their capital centers in this game, these powers will never lose the ability to place builds due on years ending in -0 and -5 on any territories shaded to
indicate their control on the reference map/at the beginning of the game.

Example 1:  It is 1895D, Britain has a build due, Britain orders: B A British Honduras.  Result: Order is Valid *IO*.

Example 2: It is 1895D, Caracas is occupied by Spain.  Venezuela orders B R AMAZONAS DE VENEZUELA.  The order is invalid *IO*.

A List of Provinces, their Powers and Capitals will be provided so that players will know which provinces belonged to which powers at the outset of the game.

B. HOME CENTERS:

Home Centers which are controlled allow for only one unit to be supported.  A power may build a unit on a home center on any D Phase where a build is due.  There are a total of thirty-five Home Centers on the Latin American Diplomacy Map.

One Home Center differs from all others: ANTOFAGASTA begins the game as Chile's home center.  But in actual history, Chile defeated Bolivia and Peru in 1883 in the War of the Pacific, and as a result took Atacama and Antofagasta from Bolivia.  This deprived Bolivia of a sea port.  While Bolivia begins this game with a Capital Center on Lago Titicaca, and can build a fleet there, Bolivia has no sea access.  Thus if Brazil can reclaim Antofagasta, in this game it can use Antofagasta as a Home Center, and thus build a fleet to put out to sea.

C. OUTPOST CENTERS:

Outpost Centers differ from Neutral Centers only inasmuch as they are located within the sovereign territory of one of the powers. Thus, when a power has an open Outpost Center on a D Phase in a year ending in -5 or -0, that power may build on it SO LONG AS NO OTHER POWER CONTROLS IT (see Rule 7.A.ii above). 

[Some powers which will be active in the Global 1890 variant are not active in this game, namely Holland and Portugal.  Thus four of the nine Outpost Centres on the map, for the purposes of this game, function identical to Neutral Centers, and cannot be built on.]

NEUTRAL CENTERS:

Neutral Centers can never be built on.  They are not occupied at the beginning of the game by any power.  There are a total of eleven Neutral Centers on the Latin American Diplomacy Map.

Note:  This brings the total number of SCs to 71.  (See Rule 12.B)

FURTHER VARIATIONS ON STANDARD RULES:

STARTING YEAR AND MOVEMENT PHASES:

[For reasons having to do with the status of the colonial possessions of the European powers in the year in which this game begins:]

The starting year for this game will be 1890, and NOT 1900. 

PHASES OF MOVEMENT:

As most of the map is in the Southern Hemisphere, it will not do to follow the Standard rotation of Spring movement phase, (Summer) retreat phase, Fall movement phase, and Winter retreat/build/disband phase.  Thus we will follow this cycle:

A: First Movement Phase* (March-June)
B: First Retreat Phase (June-September)
C: Second Movement Phase (September-December)
D: Second Retreat (/Build/Disband) Phase: (December-March)

Or by request from any player the D Phase will be divided [see Rule 8.E above]:

D1: Second Retreat Phase (December-January)
D2: Build/Disband Phase (February-March)

These can be easily indicated using the letters indicated, thus 1891 will follow the rotations: 1891A, 1891B, 1891C, 1891D (or 1891 D-1, 1891 D-2). The GM will   endeavour, to include the months in the report.

Note: Phases D or D2, while according to the months occur in the succeeding year, will still be treated as belonging to the same year as A-C phases.  In effect, the cycle of each year begins and ends in March, not December/January.  [A Chinese calendar?]

*Note:  Some movement restrictions in relation to mountainous borders apply only in Phase A; see Rule 5.C.iv above.

STARTING POSITIONS AND HOME SUPPLY CENTRES:

For this variant of Diplomacy, the twelve original powers will start with 3 to 5 units ON THE BOARD, and the first turn will be a phase D turn in which the Latin American powers will each be allowed to build an additional unit on any space that is part of their territory.   PRIOR to 1890D, the following units will start in the following positions:

ARGENTINA (ARG):   A Tucuman, A Cordoba, F Buenos Aires
BRAZIL (BRA): A Rio de Janeiro, A Recife, F Bahia, F Sao Paulo
BRITAIN (BRI): A Guyana, F The Bahamas, F Jamaica,   F Trinidad & Tobago, F East Falkland
BOLIVIA (BOL): A La Paz, A Cochabamba, A Chiquisaca (see Rule 7.B)
CHILE (CHI): A Santiago, A Antofagasta, F Concepcion
COLOMBIA (COL):  A Bogota, A Medellin, F Panama
FRANCE (FRA):   A French Guiana, F Martinique, F Guadalupe,  F Dakar
MEXICO (MEX): A Mexico City, A Guadalajara, A San Luis Potosi, F Merida
PERU (PER): A Lima, A Cuzco, F Trujillo
SPAIN (SPA): A Habana, F Santiago de Cuba, F Puerto Rico, F Canary Islands
UNITED STATES (USA):  A Atlanta, A Houston, F Jacksonville, F New Orleans
VENEZUELA: A Caracas, A Barquisimeto, F Maracaibo


CONCLUSION OF THE GAME:

The game will end when any of the following occur:

A.  A unanimous vote for a draw is made by all players;

B.  One player gains control of a majority of supply
centres (36 of 71);   or

C.  After the 27th year or 54th turn ends (1917D),whichever comes first.
 


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